Table of contents (for this page):
BGP and IPv6 routing coursesSeveral times a year I teach two training courses, one about BGP and one about IPv6. The BGP course is half theory and half hands-on practice, and so is the new IPv6 routing course. Previously, we did an IPv6 course without a hands-on part.
The courses consists of a theory part in the morning and a practical part in the afternoon where the participants implement several assignments on a Cisco router (in groups of two participants per router).
The next dates are:
Interdomain Routing & IPv6 News
My latest Ars Technica IPv6 story is about IPv6 celebrating its 20th birthday and that it has reached 10% deployment at the end of 2015.
And the US is doing very well with almost 25% IPv6 deployment:
These are the top 10 internet exchanges in the world exchanging the most traffic according to Packet Clearing House:
As you can see, the DE-CIX in Frankfurt is the top dog at 4.76 terabits per second peak traffic. (That's enough to transfer about a hundred HD movies or 595 gigabytes per second.) The Amsterdam Internet Exchange is second at 3.94 Tbps. But... we also have the Neutral Internet Exchange (NL-ix) in Amsterdam at 1.44 Tbps. So AMS-IX and NL-ix together make Amsterdam the city with the most internet traffic in the world at no less than 5.38 Tbps as per these statistics.
However, not all NL-ix traffic is actually exchanged in Amsterdam, they have many locations in the Netherlands and also some in the surrounding countries. It's still entirely possible that at least 830 Gbps of that 1.44 Tbps is exchanged in Amsterdam, though.
If you liked (or missed) last month's post where I talk about 20 years of BGP, you may be interested in this story for the RouterFreak site that covers the history of inter-domain routing all the way from the GGP protocol in the early 1980s to the present.
You've been seeing the Noction banners on this site for a while now. Maybe you're still wondering what their Intelligent Routing Platform is all about. In that case, you may want to have a look at RouterFreak's review of the IRP.
My Books: "BGP" and "Running IPv6"On this page you can find more information about my book "BGP". Or you can jump immediately to chapter 6, "Traffic Engineering", (approx. 150kB) that O'Reilly has put online as a sample chapter. Information about the Japanese translation can be found here.
More information about my second book, "Running IPv6", is available here.
BGP SecurityBGP has some security holes. This sounds very bad, and of course it isn't good, but don't be overly alarmed. There are basically two problems: sessions can be hijacked, and it is possible to inject incorrect information into the BGP tables for someone who can either hijack a session or someone who has a legitimate BGP session.
Session hijacking is hard to do for someone who can't see the TCP sequence number for the TCP session the BGP protocol runs over, and if there are good anti-spoofing filters it is even impossible. And of course using the TCP MD5 password option (RFC 2385) makes all of this nearly impossible even for someone who can sniff the BGP traffic.
Nearly all ISPs filter BGP information from customers, so in most cases it isn't possible to successfully inject false information. However, filtering on peering sessions between ISPs isn't as widespread, although some networks do this. A rogue ISP could do some real damage here.
There are now two efforts underway to better secure BGP:
The IETF RPSEC (routing protocol security) working group is active in this area.
What is BGPexpert.com?BGPexpert.com is a website dedicated to Internet routing issues. What we want is for packets to find their way from one end of the globe to another, and make the jobs of the people that make this happen a little easier.
Ok, but what is BGP?Have a look at the "what is BGP" page. There is also a list of BGP and interdomain routing terms on this page.
BGP and MultihomingIf you are not an ISP, your main reason to be interested in BGP will probably be to multihome. By connecting to two or more ISPs at the same time, you are "multihomed" and you no longer have to depend on a single ISP for your network connectivity.
This sounds simple enough, but as always, there is a catch. For regular customers, it's the Internet Service Provider who makes sure the rest of the Internet knows where packets have to be sent to reach their customer. If you are multihomed, you can't let your ISP do this, because then you would have to depend on a single ISP again. This is where the BGP protocol comes in: this is the protocol used to carry this information from ISP to ISP. By announcing reachability information for your network to two ISPs, you can make sure everybody still knows how to reach you if one of those ISPs has an outage.
For those of you interested in multihoming in IPv6 (which is pretty much impossible at the moment), have a look at the "IPv6 multihoming solutions" page.
Are you a BGP expert? Take the test to find out!
These questions are somewhat Cisco-centric. We now also have another set of questions and answers for self-study purposes.
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